Acute Grief: Pengalaman Duka saat Ibu Kehilangan Perinatal

Erni Samutri, Widyawati Widyawati, Wenny Artanty Nisman



LATAR BELAKANG: Kehilangan perinatal terjadi karena kematian janin pada usia lebih dari 22 minggu dan kematian bayi baru lahir hingga usia 28 hari kehidupan. Respon duka yang terjadi pada empat hingga enam minggu setelah peristiwa kematian janin/bayi disebut acute grief (duka akut) dan  dianggap sebagai respon yang normal. Pada kehilangan perinatal, pengalaman acute grief yang tidak dikelola dengan tepat akan meningkatkan kerentanan ibu untuk mengalami gangguan kelekatan pada kehamilan berikutnya maupun gangguan psikologis.

TUJUAN: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi pengalaman acute grief pada ibu dengan kehilangan perinatal dan upaya yang dilakukan ibu untuk mengelola duka yang dialami.

METODE: Partisipan dalam penelitian ini adalah ibu dengan pengalaman kehilangan perinatal yang dipilih dengan teknik purposive sampling. Jumlah partisipan hingga tercapai saturasi data dalam penelitian ini adalah 9 partisipan. Kriteria inklusi penelitian ini yaitu a) ibu dengan pengalaman acute grief karena kehilangan perinatal, b) lama kehilangan perinatal yaitu 7 minggu – 2 tahun. Analisa data pada penelitian ini menggunakan modified Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen.

HASIL: Penelitian ini menghasilkan tiga temuan tema yaitu ibu mengalami berbagai perasaan duka yang bercampur menjadi satu, ada kekosongan setelah kehilangan perinatal, dan pendekatan spiritual sebagai strategi koping yang bermakna.

SIMPULAN: Kehilangan perinatal telah mengarahkan ibu pada pengalaman  acute grief. Strategi koping pendekatan spiritual menjadi strategi yang digunakan oleh semua ibu dan memberikan hasil yang bermakna bagi kestabilan emosional ibu. Perlu adanya peran aktif dari tenaga kesehatan dalam memberikan dukungan psikologis dan atau konseling kepada ibu untuk membangun strategi koping yang adaptif dan meningkatkan outcome kesehatannya.

Kata kunci: kehilangan perinatal, acute grief, koping, pendekatan spiritual.




BACKGROUND: Perinatal loss occurs due to the death of a fetus at the age over 22 weeks and the death of newborn babies up to 28 days of life. Acute grief defined as response of grief that occurs at four to six weeks immediately after the events of fetus/ baby death and is considered as a normal response. Acute grief experience which is not managed properly will increase the vulnerability of women to experience attachment disorder on subsequent pregnancies as well as psychological disorder.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the experience of acute grief on mothers with perinatal loss and their efforts to manage the grief responses.

METHODS: Mothers with perinatal loss as a participant were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data saturation in this research was reached in the ninth participant. Inclusion criteria for the study is  a) mother with acute grief experience due of perinatal loss, b) the length of perinatal loss was 7 weeks-2 years. Data were analyzed using the modified Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen method.

RESULTS: Three themes which emerge in this study are mother experiences various feelings of grief that mixed into one, emptiness after perinatal loss, and spiritual approach is a meaningful coping strategy.

CONCLUSION: Perinatal loss has brought the mother to experience acute grief. Spiritual approaches used by all mothers and provide meaningful results for their emotional stability. An active role of health care provider in providing psychological support and counseling is strongly needed to build adaptive koping strategies and improve mother health outcome after perinatal loss.

Keyword: perinatal loss, acute grief, coping, spiritual approach.

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